Microdermabrasion is a skin resurfacing technique that was developed in Italy in 1985 by Marini and Lo Brutto. It is a non-invasive procedure that is used to improve skin appearance and texture. It has been estimated by the American Academy of Cosmetic Surgery to be the second most widely used cosmetic procedure after wrinkle relaxation injections. Microdermabrasion mechanically removes layers of skin using abrasives with effects limited to the superficial epidermis rather than the deeper dermis. It is used to treat acne scars, fine lines, unwanted pigmentation and other superficial skin damage associated with ageing and sun exposure.